“打榜”之路,理智前行

2020年7月,网信办开展“清朗”专项整治,整治涵盖7个方面,以打击、排除、整治网上不良的传播内容为主,整治网络恶意弹窗问题为辅,且此次活动首次提出严厉打击诱导未成年应援打榜的行为。

随着文化娱乐产业的发展,“饭圈”群体不断壮大,并成为娱乐产业链中的重要一环。为了推广自己的偶像和营造一定的热度,在娱乐公司的干预下,“饭圈”群体逐渐形成了“应援打榜,刷量控评”等一系列运营手段。从表面来看,与花费大量金钱的直接打赏相比较,打榜只需要花费部分时间和少量的金钱来购买相关的专辑,这种的行为称得上“理智追星”,对未成年人危害性并不高,但真实情况是这样的吗?

  • 打榜的时间问题

由于榜单是每天不断更新,一些粉丝团体往往会利用凌晨时间进行刷榜。这对青少年的规律作息产生了消极影响。2018年7月韩国针对音源作弊问题,6大音源宣布取消“凌晨音源榜单”。其根本出发点就是避免粉丝恶意刷榜,打击音源造假现象,同时也减少了通宵刷榜现象。而国内青少年使用软件的防沉迷系统对使用时长的限制现阶段主要停留在视频与游戏软件上。除了在游戏软件上进行实名验证后会强制开启未成年防沉迷模式以外,其他如音乐,视频等相关软件的强制性并不高。作为“饭圈”群体的主阵地——微博,对青少年模式的开启也缺乏强制性措施。因此,未成年人若想花费大量的时间在刷榜上也并非难事。但毫无疑问的是,这种对于休息时间的消耗对未成年人的身心健康是有害的。

  • 打榜的花费问题

打榜亦离不开金钱。随着近些年国内知识付费的兴起,付费歌曲的下载量,明星的周边订阅数,专辑购买量等形式都成为了打榜的一部分。这类商品的价格便宜,正好符合未成年粉丝的消费能力。但由于未成年人的心智尚未成熟,在“饭圈”资深“大粉”诱导下,容易一股脑地将所有零花钱都用于购买相关产品,以此来证明自己是偶像的“真爱”。

此外,一些平台在电商节日推出“借钱打榜”能够获得倍数点赞的促销活动,如2019年11月在“微博借钱”推出的“双十一网购势力榜”的活动中,若借钱金额大于或等于8000元的用户可获得8倍的点赞量,此类行为直接将榜位明码标价。由于青少年未树立起完善的消费观,即使相关平台明确表示不会向未成年开放小额借贷,但在高倍数点赞额的诱惑下,难以挡住青少年刷榜的热情。“借用父母账号,将钱发给‘饭圈’打粉集资打榜”等行为比比皆是。根据相关法律规定,即使未成年人作为限制民事行为能力人,所实施的行为需要法定代理人的同意或追认后才能发生效力,但未成年人依旧可以独立实施与其智力、精神状况相适应的民事法律行为。也就是说未成年人的消费金额只有到达明显不合理数额或其消费明显与其智力、精神状况不符合,才能主张退款。前文已述,用于打榜的商品价格便宜,如在音乐榜中,下载一首歌曲的价格只需2~3元,一张专辑的价格在几十元不等。即使购买数张,金额也不大。因此从法律上来看,这类购买行为并无不妥之处。

但倘若站在未成年人身心发展的角度来看,且不谈这些被重复购买的商品如何利用,这些将生活费用于打榜,为了多下载几首歌曲而少吃一顿饭,向同学朋友借钱打榜等等行为都谈不上是有益于青少年发展的行为。

对于未成年人在打榜金额上的限制,国内外并没有推出相关的干预机制。在这一方面,腾讯在对未成年人游戏充值方面的做法似乎走在了行业前列。借鉴腾讯对未成年人游戏充值的做法,平台采取人脸识别技术,对未成年的交易做出月额度限制,并且在大笔支出时进行人脸识别。“九层之台,起于累土”看上去不起眼十几元,日积月累之下也是一笔不小的金额。然而,由于未成年人每笔打榜支出金额小,相隔时间较长,申诉返款的流程繁琐复杂,故大多申诉并无实质性结果。

帮助未成年人树立起健康良好的价值观和消费观目标任重而道远,除了盼望“偶像”群体能够以身作则,为青少年树立更积极正面的榜样形象外,还需从法律和制度层面规范相关行业的运营,建立一套完整的监管救济机制,以达到“监管有方,投诉有道”的成效。

Hitting the Chart Asks for Rationality

In July 2020, the Cyberspace Administration of China launched a special rectification of ‘Clean and Bright’, covering 7 areas, focusing on combating, eliminating and rectifying unhealthy Internet content, supplemented by rectifying malicious pop-ups on the Internet. For the first time, the event proposed to severely crack down on the behavior of inducing minors to assist in hitting the charts. 

With the development of the cultural and entertainment industry, the scale of ‘fans group’ continues to grow and become an important part in the entertainment industry chain. In order to promote their idols and boost their popularity, under the intervention of entertainment companies, the ‘fans group’ has gradually formed a series of operating methods such as ‘assist in hitting the chart, boost popularity and control comments’. On the surface, compared with direct sponsor costing a large amount of money, hitting the charts takes less amount of time and money to buy albums. Thus, this seems ‘rational star chasing’ less harmful to minors, but is this the real situation?

  1. Time Consumption problem of hitting the chart 

As the rankings are constantly updated every day, some fans groups will use the early morning hours to refresh the rankings. Such behaviors have a negative impact on the regular routine of young people. In July 2018, South Korea announced the freezing of the ‘Early Morning Audio Source Chart’ in response to the problem of cheating on audio sources. Its fundamental start point is to prevent fans from boosting popularity maliciously, cracking down on the phenomenon of audio fraud, and meanwhile reducing the occurrence of overnight hitting chart. In China, currently, the anti-addiction system for apps used by teenagers and the limitation on the length of use is mainly restricted to video and game software. On game software, the teenage anti-addiction mode will be forced to turn on after real-name verification, but music and video software is not that highly mandatory. Weibo, as the headquarter of “fans group”, also lacks compulsory measures to turn on the teenage mode. From this point of view, it is not difficult for minors to spend a lot of time on hitting the chart. Undoubtedly, this kind of time consumption is harmful to the physical and mental health of the underage.

2. Money Spending Problem of Hitting the Chart 

Hitting the chart is inseparable from spending money. With the rise of knowledge payment in China recent years, the download volume of paid songs, the number of branded products subscriptions of stars, and the volume of album purchases have all become part of hitting the charts. The prices of these products are cheap, which exactly meets the spending capacity of underage fans. However, the minds of minors are immature. Under the guidance of “big fans” in the “fans group”, they can easily spend all their pocket money on related products to prove that they are in “true love” with their idols.

In addition, some platforms launched “Borrow to Hit the Chart” on e-commerce festivals which can gain multiple likes for idols. In November 2019, in the “Double Eleven Online Shopping Power List” campaign launched by “Weibo Borrow”, if the amount of borrowed money is no less than 8,000 yuan, the borrower can acquire 8 times the amount of likes for their idols. Such type of campaign directly marks the price of the idol’s ranking. Because teenagers have not established a sound consumption value, even if the relevant platforms clearly stated that they will not open micro-lending to minors, under the temptation of high multiples of likes, it is difficult to stop the enthusiasm of teenagers to do so. Behaviors such as borrowing parents accounts and sending money to “fans group” to raise funds for hitting the chart’ are here and there. According to relevant laws and regulations, even if a minor is a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, whose conduct performed requires the consent or ratification of the legal agent before taking effect, the minor can still independently perform civil legal acts compatible with his intelligence and mental status. That is to say, only a certain amount of underage consumption can be refunded according to law. As mentioned above, the prices of products used to hit the charts are cheap. For example, in the music charts, the price of downloading a song is only 2-3 yuan, and the price of an album ranges from tens of yuan. Even if one buy several copies, the amount is still not large. Thus, from a legal point of view, there is nothing wrong with this type of purchase. 

But if we look at such buying behaviors from the view of physical and mental development of minors, let alone how to use these repeatedly purchased products, spending all living expenses on hitting the charts, eating less meals in order to download a few more songs, borrowing money from classmates and friends to hit the charts are not conducive to the all-round development of youngsters. 

Regarding the restrictions on the amount of money minors spend on rankings, no relevant intervention mechanism has been introduced in China or abroad. In this regard, Tencent seems to be at the forefront of the practice regarding minors’ game charges. Drawing lessons from Tencent’s methods, the platform adopts facial recognition technology, imposes monthly limit on transactions of minors, and performs facial recognition when large expenditures are made. ‘Great oaks from little acorns grow.’ A dozen yuan seems inconspicuous, but it can reach an unexpected amount with the accumulation of time. However, since the amount of each expenditure is small and the time interval is long, the process of appealing the refund is cumbersome and complicated, and most appeals have no results.

To help minors establish healthy value and consumption view has a long way to go. In addition to hoping that ‘idols’ can lead a good example and establish a more positive role model for young people, it is also necessary to regulate relevant industries from the legal and institutional level, to establish a complete set of supervisory compensation mechanism to achieve the effect of ‘supervision and complaints both find their own ways’.

作者:付钰浈 编辑:丁心睿

翻译:贾少轩 资讯:黄心怡

0 中国网信网.关于开展2020“清朗”未成年人暑期网络环境专项整治的通知[EB/OL].http://www.cac.gov.cn/2020-07/13/c_1596175859026231.htm,2020-07-24

1 音乐财经CMBN.韩国6大音源取消“凌晨音源榜单”[EB/OL].http://www.chinambn.com/show-5877.html,2020-07-24

2 华夏时报.微博借钱疑诱导粉丝借钱“打榜”?回应:这是没有想到的结果

[EB/OL].https://finance.ifeng.com/c/7rxzEtNcSGe,2020-07-24

3 Cyberspace Administration of China. The announcement of launching the 2020‘Clear and Bright’underage summer internet environment special rectification operation [EB/OL].http://www.cac.gov.cn/2020-07/13/c_1596175859026231.htm,2020-07-24.

4 China Music Business. The six major Korean music source canceled ‘Early Morning Music Source Chart Charts’[EB/OL]. http://www.chinambn.com/show-5877.html,2020-07-24

5 China Times. Weibo borrow is suspected to induce fans borrow money to ‘hit charts’? Response: Unexpected.[EB/OL].https://finance.ifeng.com/c/7rxzEtNcSGe, 2020-07-24

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