简评饭圈文化外衣下的未成年人网络环境治理问题

近几年来,随着娱乐业的不断发展,抖音短视频等社交媒体的兴起,有关无底线追星、“饭圈”互撕、拜金炫富的负面消息也不断涌现,随着“饭圈”日益低龄化,追星过程中的许多混乱状况,如应援打榜、刷量控评、投掷千金、团体对峙、互撕谩骂、人肉搜索等等,早已令“饭圈”成为负面的代名词。

越来越多还未形成完整价值观念的未成年人不惜为偶像交智商税,日常的打榜、控评、刷热度等操作,不仅让自己和家庭陷入财务困境,还对同龄群体的“三观”产生了严重误导。

据媒体报道,刚刚落幕的一档网络真人秀节目,前15名选手的忠实粉丝花费约4800万元购买酸奶用于投票,另一名因这类节目而出道的选手,在比赛期间,粉丝后援会产生超过1530万元的支出。

这类盲目追星的行为,已经蔓延到网络和生活的每一个角落,粉丝为维护偶像名誉,轻则辱骂诽谤,重则人肉搜索,甚至侵犯人权,产生违法犯罪的行为。       

2018年,知名耽美作者墨香铜臭的一位初中生粉丝,在网上曝出其老师发表过对耽美小说《魔道祖师》的不满言论,在书粉们的人肉搜索和人身攻击下,这位老师自杀未遂,此后,书粉们甚至开始人肉搜索其就诊医院,直到网警介入,这场残忍的闹剧才被叫停。

此类的案件比比皆是,酿成的后果往往触目惊心。

联合国儿童基金会指出,网络欺凌的伤害严重而深远。这是因为它可以在网上迅速而广泛地传播,且对于所有涉及其中的人而言,这些伤害性的信息都难以真正彻底删除。与线下欺凌不同,网络欺凌可能随时随地跟随着遭受欺凌者,让他们长期被笼罩在焦虑的阴影中。

与其他学生相比,遭受网络欺凌的学生更有可能逃学,他们的学业表现也更可能会下降,自信更低,还可能面临更多健康问题。在一些极端情况下,网络欺凌甚至导致自杀。

对此,从2020年7月9日起,国家网信办启动了为期2个月的“清朗”未成年人暑期网络环境专项整治。本次专项整治行动将围绕七方面突出问题,深入清理有害信息,处置违法违规网站账号,查办曝光典型案例,推动网络生态持续向好,切实保障未成年人权益不受侵害,给孩子们的暑假网络生活“保驾护航”。

其中,该专项整治第六条规定:重点整治诱导未成年人无底线追星、饭圈互撕等价值导向不良的

信息和行为。严厉打击诱导未成年人在社交平台、音视频平台的热搜榜、排行榜、推荐位等重点区域应援打榜、刷量控评、大额消费等行为。大力整治明星话题、热门帖文的互动评论环节煽动挑拨青少年粉丝群体对立、互撕谩骂、人肉搜索等行为。严格清查处置“饭圈”职业黑粉、恶意营销等违法违规账号。深入清理宣扬攀比炫富、奢靡享乐等不良价值观的信息。

笔者认为,出台的相关规定固然能够对饭圈行为以及网络公民进行一定程度的约束,但更必要的是付诸肉眼可见的行动,此处的“行动”并不指是一味的打压和制止,而是要在思想道德层面对未成年人做出正向积极的引导。

青春期的未成年人处于一种身份认同和角色混乱的时期,他们对自己的定义是学生以及家长的孩子,单一的身份角色以及枯燥的生活模式,会让他们产生探索和涉猎其它领域的好奇心,许多青少年在工作之外发展出一些兴趣爱好来分担压力,而追星就是其中之一。但是孩子固然只是孩子,他们接触到的信息面狭窄,且不一定具备理性客观的认知观,久而久之,他们陷入了“信息茧房”的模式,这些年纪尚小的粉丝每天都会接触到看起来无边无际的资讯,但事实上,他们却被困在只能容纳偶像赞誉的孤岛上,难以接受任何不同的资讯。这样做不但会导致个体的狭隘,失去个人的判断力,以及对现实环境的错误认识,还可能导致观念的偏激和网络群体的对立与冲突。

所以,我们在青少年追星的过程中,要引领孩子认识大局,尊重他们的兴趣,并且进行正向的引导。凡事都会有两面性,“饭圈”亦如是,“饭圈”群体的动员能力、组织能力极强,尤其在一些公共事件中,在涉及国家利益等核心问题上,能迅速呈现出极大的凝聚力和团结力,如果能被加以正面引导,可以释放出难以想象的正能量。

所以,我们应当充分发挥偶像在青少年成长过程中自我认知和提升的作用,引导青少年完善自我人格,鼓励青少年学习偶像具备的技能。同时,还要引导孩子尊重差异,不盲目跟风。让孩子明白:即使是在看书方面,一千个读者都有一千个哈姆雷特,在追星方面亦如是,每个人都有自己的审美观,不能因为别人和自己对偶像的看法不同,就在网络上进行谩骂和攻击。面对恶意攻击的人,更需理智对待,以理服人。如果对方是一个蛮横不讲理的人,便不予争辩,不放在心上便是。

还需要让孩子将这一点牢记在心:网络并不是法外之地,更不是随意倾泻垃圾情绪的场所,不管是在正常生活中还是在网络中,每个人都会对自己做过的事情承担责任。

最后,我们也需要明白,网络儿童保护应是多方共同承担的责任。照料人、家长、学校、政府、执法部门、民间团体和私营部门之间的合作至关重要。所有相关人员,都要向着给孩子创建文明、和谐、健康、积极的网络环境的方向努力。因为孩子的所作所为,一定程度受到周边环境的影响,如果它处在不守规矩、在网络上任意宣泄谩骂的环境中,耳濡目染,他也将潜移默化成一个网络上不受规矩的网民,不管是网络上的施暴者还是受害者,他都终将被网络漩涡吞噬。净化网络环境,为孩子们的成长保驾护航,理应刻不容缓。

A Brief Comment on the Governance of Minors’ Network Environment under the Background of Fandom Culture

In recent years, with the continuous development of the entertainment industry and the rise of social media such as TikTok, negative news about bottomless star chasing, mutual tearing in fandom, worshiping money and flaunting wealth has continued to emerge. Along with the younger age trend of the fandom, many chaotic conditions emerge in the process of chasing stars, such as hitting the chart, occupying the comment section, spending too much money, group confrontation, mutual verbal abuse, human-powered search, etc. These have long made “fandom” a negative word.

More and more minors who have not yet formed a complete value concept don’t care to pay IQ taxes for their idols. Their daily operations such as hitting, controlling comment and reviewing popularity have not only caused themselves and their families in financial distress, but also seriously misled the value system of their peers.

According to media reports, in a recently ended internet reality show, the loyal fans of the top 15 players spent about 48 million yuan to buy yogurt for voting. Another star who made her debut through this type of show was supported by fans during the game. Supporting her cost her fans 15.3 million yuan in expenditure.

This kind of blind star-chasing behavior has spread to every corner of the Internet and life. In order to protect the reputation of idols, fans can abuse and slander, start to human-powered search, and even violate human rights, resulting in illegal and criminal behaviors.

In 2018, a junior high school fan of the well-known Tanbi author Mo Xiangtongxiu revealed on the Internet that his or her teacher had expressed dissatisfaction about Tanbi’s novel “The Great Master”. Under the human-powered search and personal attacks from the book fans, this teacher attempted suicide. After that, book fans even began to search the hospital where the teacher were treated. It was not until the cyber police intervened that the cruel farce was stopped.

Such cases abound, and the consequences are often shocking.

UNICEF pointed out that the harm of cyberbullying is serious and far-reaching. This is because it can spread quickly and widely on the Internet, and for all those involved, it is difficult to completely delete this harmful information. Unlike offline bullying, cyberbullying may follow the bullied person anytime and anywhere, leaving them in the shadow of anxiety for a long time.

Compared with other students, students who are cyberbullied are more likely to skip school, and their academic performance is more likely to decline. Their self-confidence would be lower, and they may also face more health problems. In some extreme cases, cyberbullying can even lead to suicide.

In this regard, starting from July 9, 2020, the Cyberspace Administration of China launched a two-month special rectification of the summer network environment for minors, which is named Qing Lang. The special rectification action will focus on seven outstanding issues. It will profoundly clean up harmful information, and take care of illegal website account. It will investigate and expose typical cases, help the ecological network continue to improve, and effectively protect the interests of minors from abuse, so as to “escort” children’s summer online life. Among them, Article 6 of the special rectification stipulates that, focus on rectifying misleading information and behaviors that induce minors to chase stars without a bottom line and tear mutually in fandom; severely crack down on the behaviors of inducing minors to assist in hitting, controlling comments and making large-scale consumption in key areas such as social platforms, trending lists, ranking lists, and recommendation positions of audio and video platforms; vigorously rectify the celebrity topic, the interactive comment link of popular posts incited to instigate the young fan groups to antagonize, verbally abuse each other, and start human-powered search; strictly check and deal with illegal accounts such as professional fans and malicious marketing; thoroughly clean up information that promotes unhealthy values such as comparisons, showing off wealth, extravagant pleasure, and so on.

As the author, I believe that the relevant regulations issued can certainly restrict the behavior of fans and netizens to a certain extent. However, what is more necessary is the action visible to the naked eye. Action here is not only suppressing or stopping, but to give positive guidance to minors on the ideological and moral level.

People in adolescence are in a period of position identity and role confusion. They define themselves as students and children of their parents. This single and dull identity as well as the boring life patterns will make them curious to explore and dabble in other fields. Many teenagers develop hobbies outside of work to reduce the pressure, star chasing being one of them. However, children are only children. The information they are exposed to is narrow, and they do not necessarily have a rational and objective view of cognition. Over time, they fall into the mode of “information cocoon room”. These young fans will be exposed to boundless information, but in fact, they are trapped on an isolated island that can only accommodate the praise of idols, and it is difficult to receive any different information. Doing so will not only lead to individual narrowness, loss of personal judgment, and misunderstanding of the real environment, but may also lead to extreme concepts and opposition and conflicts between online groups.

Therefore, in the process of minors chasing stars, we must lead them to understand the overall situation, respect their interests, and conduct positive guidance. Everything has two sides, the same is true for fandom. The fandom has very strong mobilization and organization capabilities. Especially in some public events, it can quickly show great cohesion on core issues such as national interests. With positive guidance, it can release unimaginable positive energy.

Therefore, we should give full play to the role of idols in self-recognition and improvement in the growth of young people, guide young people to improve their personalities, and encourage young people to learn the skills of idols. At the same time, we must guide children to respect differences and not blindly follow suit. Let the children understand: Even in the aspect of reading, a thousand readers have a thousand Hamlet, and the same is true in the aspect of star chasing. Everyone has their own aesthetics. You can’t just use the Internet because others have different opinions on idols. Verbally and attacked. Faced with malicious attacks, people need to be treated rationally and convince others with reason. If the other party is a arrogant and unreasonable person, don’t argue, just don’t take it to heart.

Children also need to keep this in mind: the Internet is not a place outside the law, let alone a place to dump garbage and emotions at will. Whether in normal life or on the Internet, everyone will take responsibility for what they have done.

Finally, we need to understand that online child protection should be the responsibility of multiple parties. Cooperation among caregivers, parents, schools, government, law enforcement, civil society and the private sector is essential. All relevant personnel must work towards creating a civilized, harmonious, healthy and positive network environment for children. Because what a child does is affected by the surrounding environment to a certain extent, if he is in an environment where there is no rules and unruly and freely venting abuse on the Internet is permissible, he will also be subtly transformed into an unruly netizen. Regardless of whether he is the perpetrator or the victim on the Internet, he will eventually be swallowed by the Internet whirlpool. Purifying the network environment and escorting the growth of children should be urgent.

作者:刘雅静  编辑:招嘉艺  翻译:张研之

1.https://www.unicef.cn/child-online-protection/what-is-cyberbullying

2.http://opinion.people.com.cn/n1/2020/0716/c223228-31786312.html

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