Global Snapshots on Child Law周报(第五期电子版)

【焦点热评】

利用网络性侵未成年人有三种类型

关键词:未成年人, 性侵害,新型犯罪形式

2020年9月3日正义网对7月21日柳州市柳北区检察院审理的张彪涉嫌猥亵儿童罪的案件进行了重述,被告人利用网络并通过言语引诱和物质引诱等方式,使用淫秽语言和淫秽图片、视频等与被害人聊天,诱骗被害人对自身实施脱衣及暴露隐私部位等猥亵行为。这种新型的猥亵犯罪具有极强的隐蔽性和广泛性。专家认为,未成年人接触网络逐渐低龄化,所遭受的网络风险也不断加大。目前,利用网络对未成年人实施性侵犯罪主要有三种类型:网友约见未成年人后性侵、通过网络聊天拍摄未成年人裸体视频、哄骗未成年人拍摄淫秽视频后上传网络牟利。

对此,检察官也告诫家长需保证和孩子相处的时间。掌握方式方法做好对女孩的性教育工作,在发现孩子有异常情况时及时报警,第一时间保留好证据;未成年人应加强个人保护意识,学会甄别网络中的真假是非,在家长的指导下安全上网。

评论:

互联网的普及使得网络逐渐低龄化,使得未成年人遭受网络风险加大,网络在带来便利同时,也为犯罪分子提供了隐蔽的空间,通过网络对儿童实施性侵害日渐成为一种新型犯罪形式。本文介绍了三种常见的的类型,希望能够引起家长、社会的重视,适当对未成年儿童进行性教育,学会在网络环境中保护自己;同时各相关执法部门也应协同各大网站加大监督、执法力度,制定完善的规章政策,切断网络性侵犯罪的链条,呵护未成年人健康成长。

原文链接:http://news.jcrb.com/jszx/202009/t20200903_2199273.html

撰稿:刘美

编辑:兰嘉颖

翻译:丁琦

Three Types of Cyber Sexual Assault on Minors

Key words: Minors, Sexual abuse, New-type crime

On September 3rd, 2020, Justice Network restated the case of Biao Zhang suspected of child molestation, which was tried by Liubei District Procuratorate of Liuzhou City on July 21st. The defendant used the Internet and through the means of verbal and property temptation to chat with the victim with obscene language, pictures and videos, so as to induce the victims to strip themselves and expose their private parts. This new type of indecent crime has strong concealment and universality. Experts believe that the current situation of minors’ contact with the Internet shows a trend of younger age, so the network risk they are facing is also increasing. At present, there are three main types of using the Internet to commit sexual assault on minors: meeting minors to commit sexual assault, shooting naked video of minors through online chat, inducing minors to take pornographic videos and upload them to the Internet for profit.

In response to this situation, prosecutors warned parents to ensure that they spend enough time with their children. To master the ways and methods to do a good job of sex education for girls; in the discovery of children have abnormal circumstances, timely alarm and retain good evidence; minors should strengthen the awareness of personal protection, learn to identify the true and false in the network, under the guidance of parents to safely surf the Internet.

Comment

The popularity of the Internet makes the network users gradually younger, so the risk of minors is increasing. Network brings convenience, but also provides a hidden space for criminals. Sexual assault on children through the Internet has become a new form of crime. This paper introduces three common types, hoping to arouse the attention of parents and society. Proper sex education should be given to minors to learn how to protect themselves in the network environment. At the same time, the relevant law enforcement departments should cooperate with the major websites to strengthen supervision and law enforcement, formulate perfect rules and policies, cut off the chain of cyber sexual assault crimes, and protect the healthy growth of minors.

Reference(s): http://news.jcrb.com/jszx/202009/t20200903_2199273.html

Writer:Mei Liu

Translator:Qi Ding

Editor:Jiaying Lan

安省将额外获得1.47亿元用于托儿所安全重开

关键字:追加基金、安全育儿

多伦多–联邦和安大略省政府已经同意将托儿资金延长一年、1.47亿加元,以帮助抵消COVID-19大流行病的相关费用。

安省教育厅长Stephen Lecce和联邦家庭、儿童和社会发展部长Ahmed Hussen今天下午在多伦多举行的新闻发布会上宣布了这一消息。

Hussen和Lecce表示,这笔钱将给安省人带来广泛的好处,因为父母在上班的时候可以让孩子得到照顾,孩子也可以再次安全地与同龄人交流。

两位部长都承认,该行业受到疫情的打击有多大,目前全省约只有60%的托儿所能够重新开放。

省府表示,这笔钱是联邦政府和安省在2017年签署的 “早期学习和托儿协议 “的延伸。

这也是建立在联邦政府之前通过所谓的 “安全重启协议 “承诺的2.34亿元基础上。

评论:

对COVID-19大流行的额外保护,增加了托儿的费用。所以有必要增加基金,以确保托儿系统的安全。而这样一来,家长们就可以安心工作,不用担心孩子的其他问题。孩子们也可以有机会与同龄人交流,健康地学习。

原文链接:https://www.cp24.com/news/ontario-to-get-additional-147-million-for-safe-childcare-reopening-1.5091647

撰稿:The Canadian Press

评论:Zehan Wang

翻译:Zehan Wang

编辑:Zehan Wang

Ontario to get additional $147 million for safe childcare reopening

Key Words: additional fund, safe childcare

TORONTO – The federal and Ontario governments have agreed to a one-year, $147-million extension of child-care funding to help offset costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The announcement was made at a press conference in Toronto this afternoon by Ontario Education Minister Stephen Lecce and Ahmed Hussen, the federal minister of families, children and social development.

Hussen and Lecce say the money will have wide-ranging benefits to Ontarians, as parents will be able to have their children taken care of while they go to work, and children will be able to safely interact with their peers once again.

Both ministers acknowledged how hard the sector had been hit by the pandemic, with around only 60 per cent of the province’s child-care centres currently able to reopen.

The province says the money is an extension of the “Early Learning and Child Care Agreement” between the federal government and Ontario that was signed in 2017.

It also builds on a previous commitment of $234 million made by the federal government through the so-called “Safe Restart Agreement.”

Comment:

The extra protection against COVID-19 pandemic increase the expense of childcare. It is necessary to increase the fund to make sure the childcare system is safe. And thus, the parents will be able to work without any other concern about their children. The children can also get the chance to connect with their peers and study healthily.

References: https://www.cp24.com/news/ontario-to-get-additional-147-million-for-safe-childcare-reopening-1.5091647

Writer: The Canadian Press, Zehan Wang(Commenter)

Editor:Zehan Wang

Mount Isa PCYC为儿童保护周提供宣传和安全空间

关键字:宣传、儿童保护周

Mount Isa PCYC在儿童保护周期间,通过提高认识和创造安全空间,将儿童的安全和福利放在优先地位。

儿童保护周从9月6日至12日,重点是确保儿童的安全和需求是每个人的优先事项。

警员Aimee Sewell说,Mount Isa的每个孩子都有感受安全的权利。

“在儿童保护周期间,我们正在与年轻人谈论什么是安全感,但更重要的是,当他们没有安全感或发生不好的事情时,他们知道该怎么做,”Sewell女士说。

“我们和年轻人一起讨论当他们感到不安全时,他们的身体线索可能会告诉他们什么。例如,他们可能会哭泣,起鸡皮疙瘩或膝盖会晃动;所以我们教他们这些线索,然后如何应对。

“这样一来,如果他们遇到危险,他们就会知道如何应对和反应,让他们摆脱最初的危险,以及他们可以向谁倾诉。”

Sewell女士说,通过 “儿童安全周 “发生了许多项目和活动,该活动由成功的拨款资助,并与Centacare,Young People Ahead,Headspace和青年司法合作实施。

“我们首先参加了当地的小学,并进行了演讲,以传达关键的儿童安全信息,并确保每个人都知道儿童安全是每个人的事情,每个人都有责任,”她说。

“我们使用的一件事是丹尼尔-莫科姆基金会,并谈论他们的安全网络,鼓励年轻人有五个来自不同领域的成年人,他们可以向他们报告事件。”

在本周结束时,还有两个社会活动将会举行。

“结合学校的演讲,我们还有儿童保护–公园里的寒暄活动,该活动将于9月10日星期四下午4点至6点在Minnie Davis公园举行,”Sewell女士说。

“在这次活动中,我们将有跳城堡,艺术和手工活动,比萨饼,气球,紧急服务,还有很多乐趣。这个活动将针对我们0-12岁的孩子和家庭。

“周五我们在PCYC有周五夜光活动,从下午6点到晚上9点,针对12-17岁的孩子。我们将提供热狗、爆米花、篮球、软饮料、音乐、免费WiFi,并为这些年轻人创造一个安全的活动场所

“这项活动每周都会继续,所以这些年轻人有一个安全的空间与他们的伙伴们一起玩耍。这是一个安全的环境,家长可以有信心,如果他们把年轻人丢在那里,这是一个受监督的活动,他们也可以和警察和志愿者接触。”

Sewell女士说,如果有人目击到孩子处于危险之中,要向适当的渠道报告。

“人们可以做很多事情。如果他们认为有犯罪因素,立即联系警方。你也可以直接联系儿童安全,在很多情况下保持匿名。”她说。

“所以,只要你告诉权威人士,你认为孩子有危险,这绝对是最重要的事情。”

评论

儿童保护应该被带到一个更高层次的意识。Mount Isa PCYC为 “儿童保护周 “提供宣传和安全空间,这是强化儿童保护必要性的有意义的行动。给孩子一个安全的成长和生活空间,对社会是有益的,也是成年人必须要保证的。

原文链接:https://www.northweststar.com.au/story/6912925/pcyc-provides-awareness-and-safe-spaces-for-child-protection-week/

撰稿:Samantha Campbell  评论:Zehan Wang

翻译:Zehan Wang

编辑:Zehan Wang

Mount Isa PCYC provides awareness and safe spaces for Child Protection Week

Key words: awareness, Child Protection Week

Mount Isa PCYC is prioritising the safety and wellbeing of children by raising awareness and creating a safe space during Child Protection Week.

Child Protection Week runs from September 6-12 and focuses on ensuring the safety and needs of children are a priority to everyone.

Constable Aimee Sewell said every child in Mount Isa had the right to feel safe.

“During Child Protection Week we are talking to young people about what it means to feel safe, but more importantly to know what to do when they don’t feel safe or when something bad happens,” Ms Sewell said.

“With young people we talking about what their body clues might tell them when they feel unsafe. For example, they might cry, get goosebumps or knees will wobble; so we teach them those clues and then how to react to it.

“That way if they are in danger, they’ll know how to respond and react to get them out of initial danger and who they can talk to about it.”

Ms Sewell said there were a number of programs and events happening through Child Safety Week that was funded through a successful grant and delivered in partnership with Centacare, Young People Ahead, Headspace and Youth Justice.

“We have commenced by attending local primary schools, and conducting presentations to convey key child safety messages and making sure that everyone knows child safety is everyone’s business and that everyone has a part to play,” she said.

“One thing we use is The Daniel Morcombe Foundation and talk about their safety network, encouraging young people to have five adults from different areas of their life that they can report incidents to.”

There are also two social events happening at the end of the week.

“In conjunction with the school presentations, we also have Child Protection – Chilling in the Park event which is happening this Thursday September 10 from 4pm to 6pm at Minnie Davis Park,” Ms Sewell said.

“At this event we will have jumping castles, art and crafts activities, pizza, balloons, emergency services, and a lot of fun. This event will be targeting our 0-12 year olds and families.

“On Friday we have Friday Night Lights at PCYC from 6pm to 9pm for 12-17 year olds. We will have hot dogs, popcorn, basketball, soft drinks, music, free WiFi and create a safe place for those young people to hang out

“This event will continue every week, so these young people have a safe space to hang out with their mates. This is an environment that is safe and parents can have the confidence that if they drop their young person down there, that it is a supervised activity and they can also engage with police and volunteers.”

Ms Sewell said if anyone witnesses a child in danger, to report it to the appropriate channels.

“There are a number of things people can do. If they believe there is a criminal element, contact police immediately. You can also contact child safety directly and remain anonymous in a lot of situations,” she said.

“So as long as you’re telling someone in authority that you think a child is at risk, that is definitely the most important thing.”

Comment:

Child protection should be brought to a higher level of awareness. Mount Isa PCYC provides awareness and safe spaces for Child Protection Week, which is a meaningful action to strengthen the necessity of child protection. Giving children a safe place to grow and live is beneficial to the society and is a must for the adults to guarantee.

References: https://www.northweststar.com.au/story/6912925/pcyc-provides-awareness-and-safe-spaces-for-child-protection-week/

Writer: Samantha Campbell, Zehan Wang(Commenter)

Editor:Zehan Wang

Furey承诺每天25元托儿费是明智的公共政策

关键字:育儿、资金投入

2017年幼儿教育报告将纽芬兰省和拉布拉多省确定为幼儿教育部门进步最大的省份。最初有争议的政策变化,如全日制幼儿园,推动了该省的发展。四岁儿童的初级幼儿园和每天25美元的托儿服务是接下来的关键步骤。这些建议得到了研究的支持,与其他省份的方向一致,反映了联邦/省资助协议的核心原则,以增加有幼儿的家庭获得早期学习和儿童保育的机会。

这些建议落实了2017年省长改善教育成果专责小组报告中的战略,其中包括扩大目前的托儿业务补助计划,以支持高质量的计划、家长可负担的费用和教育工作者更公平的工资。这些措施与初级幼儿园一起,将增加纽芬兰省和拉布拉多半岛所有学龄前儿童接受早期教育的机会。同时推出这两项举措,可以避免破坏托儿部门的稳定,并确保幼儿教育工作者的优质职业机会。

魁北克省扩大初级幼儿园和为低龄儿童设置收费上限的经验促进了其经济发展,使母亲重返劳动力市场,提高了母亲的中学后教育水平,并将家庭贫困率降低了一半。经济学家记录了魁北克省的全民托儿计划是如何通过工作母亲缴纳的税款和减少对社会福利计划的占用而收回成本的。

加拿大和世界各地的政府和经济学家都认识到,刺激经济增长,同时减少不平等的最好方法之一是投资于早期教育。阿尔伯塔省刚刚公布了一项为期三年的收费上限试点研究,获得了异常积极的评价。不列颠哥伦比亚省也即将发布类似的托儿费封顶计划研究报告,而西北地区则对收费封顶的中心的幼儿教育工作者的工资进行封顶。

了解了大量关于幼年的研究,就能体会到安德鲁-福瑞省长的决心。幼年研究1-4等文件使这些研究容易消化。

在这次大流行中吸取的许多教训中,有一个是幼年群体的脆弱性。可获得的和负担得起的早期学习和护理对儿童、家庭和经济至关重要。被边缘化的儿童和他们的家庭尤其受到关闭的学校和儿童中心的影响,许多人将在数年内挣扎,以挽回失去的时间。可获得的托儿服务可以帮助缩小发展差距,减少社会不平等,同时直接影响年轻家庭。经济增长有赖于人们能够工作,而工作又有赖于托儿所。本省迫切需要经济增长,需要更多的儿童,需要年轻家庭有更多的选择。总理的承诺既承认我们时代的紧迫性,又承认有效应对的证据。

评论:

为育儿投入更多的资金,对弱势群体中的儿童的身心健康有保障作用。儿童是社会的新生力量。为儿童成长提供必要的财务扶助也有助于社会的发展与稳定。

原文链接:https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/opinion/regional-perspectives/letter-fureys-commitment-to-25-a-day-child-care-is-wise-public-policy-496356/

撰稿:Margaret Norrie McCain, David Philpott评论:Zehan Wang

翻译:Zehan Wang

编辑:Yunzhong Dai

LETTER: Furey’s commitment to $25-a-day child care is wise public policy

Key words: childcare, money commitment

The 2017 Early Childhood Education Report identified Newfoundland and Labrador as the most improved province in the early-years sector. Policy changes that were initially controversial, such as full-day kindergarten, moved the province forward. Junior kindergarten for four year-olds and $25-a-day child care are the next critical steps. They are supported by the research, consistent with the direction of other provinces and reflective of the core tenets of the federal/provincial funding agreements to increase access to early learning and child care for families with young children.

These recommendations operationalize the strategies contained in the 2017 report of the Premier’s Task Force on Improving Educational Outcomes, which included an expansion of the current child care operating grants initiative to support quality programming, affordable fees for parents and fairer wages for educators. Together with junior kindergarten, these measures would ramp up access to early learning for all Newfoundland and Labrador’s preschoolers. Rolling out the two initiatives in tandem avoids destabilizing the child care sector and ensures quality career opportunities for early childhood educators.

Quebec’s experience expanding junior kindergarten and capping fees for younger children boosted its economy, returned mothers to the work force, raised post-secondary education for mothers and cut family poverty in half. Economists document how Quebec’s universal child care program more than paid for itself through the taxes paid by working mothers and the reduced draw on social welfare programs.

Governments and economists across Canada and around the globe recognize that one of the best ways to stimulate economic growth, while reducing inequality, is to invest in the early years. Alberta just released a study on its three-year pilot of capping fees, which yielded exceptionally positive reviews. British Columbia is about to release a study on a similar program of capped child care fees, while the Northwest Territories tops up the wages of early child educators in centers that cap fees.

Understanding the plethora of research on the early years gives an appreciation for Premier Andrew Furey’s commitment. Documents such as the Early Years Study 1-4 make this research easy to digest.

Among the many lessons learned during this pandemic is the fragility of the early years sector. Accessible and affordable early learning and care are vital to children, families and economies. Marginalized children and their families were especially impacted by closed schools and child centers, and many will struggle for years to regain lost time. Accessible child care can help close developmental gaps and reduce social inequality while directly impacting young families. Economic growth relies on people being able to work, which, in turn, depends on child care. This province desperately needs growth, more children, and greater options for young families. The premier’s commitment recognizes both the urgency of our times and the evidence to respond effectively.

Comments

Investing more money in childcare has a guaranteed effect on the physical and mental health of children from vulnerable groups. Children are a new force in society. Providing the necessary financial support for children’s growth will also contribute to the development and stability of society.

References: https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/opinion/regional-perspectives/letter-fureys-commitment-to-25-a-day-child-care-is-wise-public-policy-496356/

Writer: Margaret Norrie McCain, David Philpott, Zehan Wang(Commenter)

Editor:Yunzhong Dai

逃避口罩检查,4名少年在雅加达市中心冲撞地方警察

关键词:未成年人 口罩 冲撞

雅加达,CNN印度尼西亚-在雅加达市中心Sawah Besar的Lautze路,四名骑摩托车的少年为逃避口罩检查冲撞了地方警察。在大规模社交限制过渡期间,以防止新冠病毒传播,地方警察与印尼国军和印尼共和国警察一起执行了口罩规范操作,。

引自Antara,9月1日在雅加达市中心的Karanganyar分区警察总部会面时,Sawah Besar区地方警察队伍负责人达拉维斯·西利通加(Darwis Silitonga)说:“起初我们确实在执行口罩规范操作,结果从Lautze 路的尽头,有四人骑着一辆摩托车。他们没有戴口罩而且因为他们看到警察试图逃跑。” 四个名字缩写为MI,A,DTH和D的少年导致一名地方警察的肩膀和右手受伤,该警察名为Jaani。

Sawah Besar地区的印尼国军和分区警察陪同地区警察,也立即将摩托车和四名少年带到了Karanganyar分区警察总部。达尔维斯说:“我们通知了他们的父母。我们要求他们发表声明,监督他们的孩子,保护他们的孩子以免再次犯下类似的行为。”

目前,地区警察仍在对他们四人就有关在新冠肺炎爆发期间违反卫生协议并未使用口罩的情况进行调查。达尔维斯说,警方不会形成警方报告,但是地方警察将在执行卫生协议方面教育这四名少年。达尔维斯说:“四名少年一定会因为没有戴口罩而被罚款。如果被要求做社会工作惩罚,这些孩子将不会得到最大程度的惩罚。他们也受到伤害。”

评论:

在新冠肺炎疫情期间,各个国家针对本国疫情的情况都制定了卫生防控规定。一部分民众还是无视甚至违反国家制定防控规定。也有不少国家对违反防控规定的行为进行处罚。该事件也体现出印尼警方针对未成年人犯罪将实施代替性惩罚,例如地方警察将在执行卫生协议方面教育这四名少年。四名少年一定会因为没有戴口罩而被罚款,但是考虑到他们的心里承受能力,他们将不会得到最大程度的惩罚,也不会得到社会工作的惩罚。但是在疫情期间,还是要做好个人防护,不仅对自己负责,也对他人负责。

原文链接:

https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200901164303-20-541645/hindari-razia-masker-4-remaja-tabrak-satpol-pp-di-jakpus

撰稿:CNNIndonesia

翻译:穆荣多米加

编辑:穆荣多米加

Hindari Razia Masker, 4 Remaja Tabrak Satpol PP di Jakpus

Key words: topeng kecil menabrak

Empat remaja yang menggunakan sepeda motor menabrak petugas Satpol PP saat menghindari razia penggunaan masker di Jalan Lautze, Sawah Besar, Jakarta Pusat. Operasi Tertib Masker itu dilakukan Satpol PP bersama TNI dan Polri dalam rangka pencegahan virus corona selama masa PSBB Transisi.

“Jadi awalnya kita memang sedang Operasi Tibmask (Tertib Masker), ternyata dari arah Jalan Lautze Ujung itu ada empat orang, naik satu motor. Mereka tidak pakai masker dan karena lihat ada petugas mereka berusaha melarikan diri,” ujar Kasatpol PP Kecamatan Sawah Besar, Darwis Silitonga, saat ditemui di Kasubpolsektor Karanganyar, Jakarta Pusat, Selasa (1/9), dilansir dari Antara.

Keempat remaja berinisial MI, A, DTH, dan D itu, menyebabkan salah satu petugas Satpol PP bernama Jaani mengalami cedera di bagian pundak dan tangan kanannya.

Satpol PP yang didampingi petugas dari Polsek dan TNI Kecamatan Sawah Besar pun segera membawa motor dan keempat remaja itu ke Kasubpolsektor Karanganyar.

“Kami panggil orang tua mereka. Mereka kami minta bikin surat pernyataan agar mengawasi anak-anaknya dan menjaga anaknya agar tidak melakukan kembali perbuatan serupa,” ujar Darwis.

Saat ini keempatnya masih diperiksa Satpol PP terkait pelanggaran protokol kesehatan tidak menggunakan masker di tengah masa pandemi Covid-19.

Darwis mengatakan pihaknya tidak akan membuat laporan polisi, namun keempat remaja tersebut akan dibina oleh Satpol PP khususnya terkait menerapkan protokol kesehatan.

“Ini keempatnya pasti kita denda karena tidak pakai masker. Jika disuruh melakukan sanksi kerja sosial pun anak-anak ini tidak akan maksimal. Mereka juga mengalami luka-luka ,” kata Darwis.

References:

https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200901164303-20-541645/hindari-razia-masker-4-remaja-tabrak-satpol-pp-di-jakpus

Writer: CNNIndonesia

Translation:Murong Domica.

Editor:Murong Domica.

因为被欺负,16岁少年殴打朋友致死

关键词:未成年人 外号 殴打

巴淡,CNN印度尼西亚-在廖内群岛巴淡,一名16岁男孩殴打他15岁的朋友。殴打发生在受害者以外号“大象”欺负加害者之后。殴打使受害者失去意识并死亡。这场殴打事件发生2020年8月8日晚上,在Batu Ampar区一个离受害者家不远的祈祷室,受害者打算进行昏礼。

受害者遇见加害者发生了争执,而在前一天受害者以“大象”为外号欺负加害者。受害者以“大象”为外号,是因为加害者很胖,体重超过100公斤。加害者不开心被欺负而向受害者的脸颊猛击。受害者被殴打后继续进行昏礼,祈祷后返回家中。

受害者父亲说:“他回到家后吃饭。没多久,他躺在这里,然后呕吐。我以为他感冒了。但是他一直呕吐直到癫痫发作。我立即将他送往医院。”受害者的父亲承认,他儿子入院时,他不知道殴打事件。受害者的病情恶化,处于昏迷状态并在重症监护病房接受治疗后,他才从受害者的朋友那里收到消息。这突然震惊了受害者的父亲。该男子看到儿子失去知觉的状况,向安巴警察总部报告了殴打事件。但是,受害者经过几天的治疗,于2020年8月14日死亡。

从这份报告开始,在巴图安帕警察局继续调查殴打事件。 巴图安帕警察局的AKP Nendra Madya Tias说,调查人员已将第一阶段检查文件发送给巴淡岛地区检察官办公室。星期一(31/8)他说:“几天前是第一阶段。检察官正在研究我们发送的文件。”Nendra解释说,在案件升级为调查之前,警方已根据法律规定进行了交接工作。考虑到犯罪者是未成年人。他说:“如果儿童犯了罪或面临刑罚,已经根据法律的规定进行了交接。但是交接并未产生结果以至于该案要进行调查。”

另外,区域儿童监督和保护委员会(KPPAD)负责人Kepri Erry Syahrial表示,委员会方面从报告开始就一直在监督此案。据他说,此案被列为严重案件,因为这是导致死亡的暴力犯罪行为。

评论:

这是一个未成年施暴案件,社会的快速发展产生了很多导致未成年人犯罪低龄化的因素,该案件中加害者是因为受到受害者的语言侮辱而对受害者进行殴打。但由于受害者已过世,因此可以依法起诉。该案件已根据2012年关于少年刑事司法系统第11号法律进行了审理。加害者以被起诉并被拘留。社会各界希望可以尽快处理此事,因为根据少年法庭的规定,是有时限的。社会各界也十分关注该案件,以便根据少年司法对犯罪者进行处理,让受害者也将得到公平。

原文链接:

https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200901011909-12-541355/dampak-dibully-remaja-16-tahun-pukul-teman-hingga-tewas

撰稿:CNNIndonesia

翻译:穆荣多米加

编辑:穆荣多米加

Dampak Dibully, Remaja 16 Tahun Pukul Teman hingga Tewas

Key words: Minors  Nick  Assault

Seorang remaja laki-laki berusia 16 tahun memukul temannya yang masih berusia 15 tahun di Batam, Kepulauan Riau (Kepri). Pemukulan terjadi setelah pelaku dibully korban dengan sebutan gajah.

Pemukulan tersebut menyebabkan korban kehilangan kesadaran hingga meninggal dunia. Kejadian pemukulan ini terjadi pada 8 Agustus 2020 petang, saat korban hendak menjalankan salat Magrib di salah satu mushola tak jauh dari rumahnya yang berada di Kecamatan Batu Ampar.

Korban yang bertemu dengan pelaku sempat cekcok setelah sehari sebelumnya korban membully pelaku dengan sebutan gajah. Sebutan itu dilontarkan korban karena badan pelaku yang sangat besar, dengan berat lebih dari 100 kg.

ak senang dibully tersebut, pelaku melayangkan satu pukulan ke arah pipi korban.

Usai pemukulan tersebut, korban masih tetap melaksanakan salat Magrib dan kembali ke rumah setelah salat Isya.

“Sampai di rumah, dia makan. Nggak lama, dia baring-baring di sini, trus muntah. Saya pikir dia masuk angin, saya kerokin. Tapi muntah terus sampai akhirnya kejang. Langsung saya bawa ke rumah sakit,” kata ayah korban.

Ayah korban mengaku belum mengetahui perihal pemukulan tersebut saat anaknya masuk rumah sakit. Ia baru mendapatkan informasi dari teman korban setelah kondisi korban semakin parah dan koma, serta dirawat di ruang ICU.

“Temannya yang bilang ke istri saya kalau dia dipukul anak belakang (tak jauh dari rumah korban),” kata ayah korban lagi.

Hal tersebut sontak membuat ayah korban kaget. Melihat kondisi anaknya yang sudah kehilangan kesadaran, pria ini melaporkan perihal pemukulan tersebut ke Mapolsek Batu Ampar.

Namun, setelah menjalani perawatan selama beberapa hari, korban meninggal dunia pada 14 Agustus 2020 lalu.

“Saya hanya ingin keadilan untuk anak saya,” kata ayah korban lagi.

Berawal dari laporan tersebut, kasus pemukulan tersebut terus bergulir di Polsek Batu Ampar. Kapolsek Batu Ampar, AKP Nendra Madya Tias mengatakan, penyidik telah mengirimkan berkas pemeriksaan tahap I ke Kejaksaan Negeri Batam.

“Sudah tahap I beberapa hari lalu. Penuntut umum sedang pelajari berkas yang kita kirimkan. Semoga segera P21,” katanya, Senin (31/8).

Nendra menjelaskan, sebelum kasus ini ditingkatkan ke penyidikan, pihaknya telah melakukan upaya diversi sesuai ketentuan undang-undang. Hal ini dilakukan mengingat pelaku tindak pidana adalah anak di bawah umur.

“Sudah dilakukan diversi, sesuai ketentuan undang-undang, apabila anak melakukan tindak pidana atau berhadapan dengan hukum. Tapi diversi tidak membuahkan hasil sehingga perkaranya ditingkatkan ke penyidikan,” katanya.

Terpisah, Ketua Komisi Pengawasan dan Perlindungan Anak Daerah (KPPAD) Kepri Erry Syahrial mengatakan pihaknya mengawasi kasus ini sejak awal laporan.

Menurutnya, kasus ini tergolong kasus berat karena merupakan tindak pidana kekerasan yang berujung pada kematian.

 Comment:

“Ini kan kasus anak, tapi karena ini meninggal dunia, maka ini bisa diproses secara hukum. Dan itu sudah berjalan sesuai Undang-undang No 11 Tahun 2012 tentang sistem peradilan pidana anak. Anak sudah diproses dan sudah ditahan juga, meskipun sempat ditempatkan di Dinas Sosial. Kami berharap ini bisa diproses secara cepat karena sesuai ketentuan peradilan anak, ada batas waktunya. Kami akan tetap mengawasi agar pelaku diproses sesuai peradilan anak tetapi korban juga mendapatkan keadilan,” katanya.

It also builds on a previous commitment of $234 million made by the federal government through the so-called “Safe Restart Agreement.”

xtra protection against COVID-19 pandemic increase the expense of childcare. It is necessary to increase the fund to make sure the childcare system is safe. And thus, the parents will be able to work without any other concern about their children. The children can also get the chance to connect with their peers and study healthily.

References:

https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200901011909-12-541355/dampak-dibully-remaja-16-tahun-pukul-teman-hingga-tewas

Writer: CNNIndonesia

Translation:Murong Domica.

Editor:Murong Domica.

Red Deer法官拒绝了妇女在托儿案件中要求更换成土著法官的请求

关键字:托儿所案例、土著法官替代

上周,阿尔伯塔省法官J.A.Glass驳回了一名土著妇女要求土著法官主持其儿童保育案件的申请。

法庭文件显示,Lakia Nadeau-Morrison申请Glass和所有其他非土著法官回避她的案件,称 “她有权由一名土著法官审理”。

她认为,她和她的孩子在法庭上受到歧视,与她的孩子分开,不符合她的最大利益,”因为他们有权了解自己的土著文化”。

Nadeau-Morrison列举了她的跨代创伤经历,”与她自己与自己的家庭分离有关,她的家庭中有非常个人化的六十年代勺子的遗产,以及印第安人寄宿学校的遗产”,Glass说,他 “知道并注意到了这一申请”。

在文件中,Nadeau-Morrison提到了《联邦印第安人法》、《6号条约》,为自己的请求辩护。

 据悉,Nadeau-Morrison没有提到Glass或其他非土著法官作出不公平或带有偏见的裁决的任何具体事例。

在提到其他要求法官回避的申请时,包括2019年不列颠哥伦比亚省最高法院审理的案件也被拒绝,称法官 “不应过于急于 “回避,以防止 “危害法官公正性”。

格拉斯说:”我很满意,即使申请人的土著背景和生活环境与我本人不同,我也能在这件事上做出公平公正的裁决。

“他说:”没有任何以前的声明或决定记录表明,我或我的任何同行都无法公平或公正地对待判断申请人及其事项,我不得不驳回这一申请。”

评论:

此案件因为涉及到儿童,裁决上需要保证公众性与合理性。当事人的诉求可以理解, 但法官的驳回也有相关法律的支持。最重要的不在于是否由土著法官审理,而是案件本身该如何判决才能使涉事儿童受到的影响得到最小。

原文链接:https://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/red-deer-judge-denies-womans-request-for-indigenous-replacement-in-child-care-case

撰稿:Olivia Condon评论:Zehan Wang

翻译:Zehan Wang

编辑:Yunzhong Dai

Red Deer judge denies woman’s request for Indigenous replacement in child care case

Key words: child care case, indigenous replacement

An Indigenous woman’s application for an Indigenous judge to preside over her child-care case was dismissed by Alberta judge J.A. Glass last week.

Lakia Nadeau-Morrison applied for Glass, and all other non-Indigenous judges, to recuse themselves from her case stating “that she has a right to be tried by an Indigenous judge,” court documents show.

She argued she and her children are being discriminated against in the courts and that it is not in her children’s best interests to be separated from her “because they are entitled to know their own Indigenous culture.”

Nadeau-Morrison cited her experiences of inter-generational trauma “related to her own separation from her own family, the very personal legacy in her family of the Sixties Scoop, and the legacy of Indian Residential Schools,” all of which, Glass said he’s “aware of and take notice of in this application.”

In the document, Nadeau-Morrison referenced the Federal Indian Act, Treaty 6, in defence of her request.

 It’s noted that Nadeau-Morrison did not reference any specific instances where Glass, or other non-Indigenous judges ruled unfairly or with bias.

In referencing other applications for a judge to recuse himself, including a 2019 case heard in British Columbia’s Supreme Court which was also denied, it was said that judges “should not be too eager” to recuse themselves in order to prevent “jeopardizing the appearance of impartiality of the judges.”

Glass said, “I am satisfied that I can rule fairly and impartially in this matter even though the applicant’s Indigenous background and life circumstances are different from my own.

“Without any record of prior statements or decisions demonstrating that I am, or any of my peers are, unable to approach judging the applicant and her matters fairly or impartially, I am obliged to dismiss this application,” he stated.

Comments:

As the case involved children, the decision needed to be public and reasonable. The claims of the parties were understandable, but the judge’s dismissal was also supported by the relevant legislation. The most important thing was not whether the case was heard by an indigenous judge, but rather how the case itself should be decided in order to minimize the impact on the children involved.

References: https://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/red-deer-judge-denies-womans-request-for-indigenous-replacement-in-child-care-case

Writer: Olivia Condon, Zehan Wang(Commenter)

Editor:Yunzhong Dai

【专题研究】

论降低刑事责任年龄的意义

关键词:未成年人  刑事责任年龄  刑事责任年龄降低

摘要:近年来,未成年人犯罪呈现低龄化、暴力化的趋势。此趋势引起了广大学者对是否应当降低刑事责任年龄的争论。本文从被害人、保护未成年人及境外司法借鉴的角度阐述了降低刑事责任年龄的必要性和意义。

未成年犯罪概况

2014年河北蔚县1名8岁男童被11名小学生围殴致死[1]。2020年2月25日,四川省眉山市一名13岁少年因琐事,将熟睡中的母亲杀害[2]。5月27日,陕西省蓝田县四名男生在男厕所对一名13岁女生进行性侵[3]…..此类低龄未成年恶性犯罪案件并不鲜见。因当事人未达到刑事责任年龄,相关部门不予立案,从而在社会上引起广泛的讨论。

我国现行《刑法》中,将刑事责任年龄分为三类:16岁以上为完全责任年龄阶段,即应当负全部的刑事责任;已满十四周岁不满十六周岁为限制刑事责任年龄阶段,对八大类犯罪[4]承担刑事责任;十四周岁以下为绝对不负刑事责任年龄阶段,即不承担刑事责任[5]。中国预防青少年犯罪研究会课题组对未成年犯罪做了问卷调查,调研指出“未成年人犯罪低龄化趋势在故意杀人罪、抢劫罪等社会危害极其巨大的恶性犯罪、暴力犯罪领域特别突出,以故意杀人罪为例,14周岁的未成年犯所占比例接近50%[6]。”

出于对未成年人的保护,《刑事诉讼法》明确规定对犯罪的未成年人实行“教育、感化、挽救”的方针,但现阶段未成年人犯罪呈现低龄化、暴力化趋势。被曝光的低龄未成年人恶性杀人案件,多数是由于犯罪未成年人未达到刑事追责年龄,相关部门不予立案,罪责刑不匹配,而在公众引起轩然大波。尽管此类极端案件数目较少,但每一件都挑战着公众对司法权威性和公正性的信任。

评论员斯涵涵表示:“缺乏惩处的温柔教育难以起到警戒,遏制作用[7]”。站在惨痛的事实面前,降低刑事责任年龄一方面能够够安抚被害人及其家属的情绪,另一方面对儿童保护也具有重要的意义。

对被害人等的安抚作用:

刑法第17条第4款特别规定:“因不满十六周岁不予刑事处罚的”,一般应“责令他的家长或者监护人加以管教”;“在必要的时候,也可以由政府收容教养”。而现阶段收容制度在实践中名存实亡,最高人民检察院未检处表示:“政府的收容教养措施在劳教制度废止之后也名存实亡了,因为收容教养的执行场所已不复存在,现状是大部分省市基本不再适用收容教养措施,少数仍在适用收容教养措施的省市,也在适用程序及执行场所等方面遭到了‘合法性’的严重质疑[8]。”因此,在司法实践中,收容政策难以贯彻落实。再有,《预防未成年犯罪法》中所提出的“工读制度”,即父母、监护人和学校可以选择将有严重不良行为的未成年送入工读学校。法律的本身并非强制性规定,而是属于选择性的规定。姑且不谈将犯罪的未成年送入工读学校需要监护人的同意[9],就工读学校本身而言;工读学校不属于行政处分或刑罚的范围,除按照义务教育法的要求,在课程设置上与普通学校相同外,工读学校加强法制教育的内容[10]。由此来看,现行对于犯罪的未成人并没有相适应的管教和惩戒手段。

2019年10月20日,13岁大连男孩蔡某某杀害同小区居民10岁女孩小淇,抛尸灌木丛[11],依法判决犯罪男孩在平面媒体上道歉并赔偿128万。在“计划生育”大背景下,孩子对于一个家庭的重要性是不言而喻的。此种情景下,和遭受到灭顶之灾的家庭相比,将犯罪未成年收容教养或是送去工读学校的惩罚力度都是不够的,并不能很好的安抚受害者及其家属的情绪。在愤懑、绝望等极端情绪影响下,其家属可能会产生复仇心理,激情杀人。降低刑事责任年龄,利用刑罚惩罚犯罪,安抚、补偿被害人的功能。防止被害人及其亲属等对犯罪人采取私人报复,及时的抚慰受害人及其家属的心灵,回应社会群众对法律的质疑,更有利于社会的稳定。

对未成年人的保护作用

未成年人交往对象具有特定性,大部分受害者仍是未成年人。如受到社会关注的校园欺凌事件。施暴者仗着自己年幼,不需要承担刑事责任,肆无忌惮进行着自己的“恶作剧”。当受害者向学校或警察局寻求帮助时,公安部门对当事人的处理会受到限制,惩戒效果不明显。至于学校,出自于各方面的原因,如:施暴者家属的苦苦哀求、息事宁人、不影响学校声誉等等。往往会采取宽容的手段,对施暴者进行口头上批评或者令其写一份检讨书以此作为惩罚。此类怀柔的处罚措施,降低了犯罪成本,一定程度上助长了施暴者嚣张的气焰,一味地袒护施暴者,只会无端增加受害者被再次伤害的可能性,这无疑是对未成年的保护不利的。反之,降低刑事责任年龄有助于学校和家庭提高对未成年犯罪的重视,能够尽早预防与干预未成年人恶性犯罪。

境外司法借鉴

随着经济的发展,以及综合未成年人犯罪的现状,《联合国儿童权利公约》建议将 12 周岁作为最低刑事责任年龄的标准。英国最低刑事责任年龄为 10 周岁,美国各个州设置的刑事责任年龄为 7 周岁,最高不超过 13 周岁[12],而大陆现行的刑事责任年龄明显高于其他主要国家和地区。另外,为广大学者呼吁的“恶意补足年龄制度[13]”的本质是相对负刑事责任年龄的规定,其是被限定在相对负刑事责任的年龄阶段的。“恶意补足刑事责任年龄”的弹性也是有限度的,其不会逾越相对负刑事责任年龄阶段这一刚性的要求[14]。因此,只有在降低最低刑事责任年龄的情况下,才能有效地适用“恶意补足刑事责任年龄”以应对未成年人犯罪低龄化问题。

结语

罗翔教授曾言:“仁爱与公正相对,离开了公正,仁爱也不复存在。”无论是刑事责任年龄的分化,还是确立未成年犯罪记录封存制度,亦或是设立未成年刑事案件诉讼程序等都体现了法律对未成年人的温情与仁慈。但这种“仁慈”不是我们无视受害人流泪的双眼的理由,缺乏公正土壤的仁爱之果,最终会化作带毒的利刃,危及社会,造成无法挽救的后果。

撰稿:付钰浈

翻译:王艺琳

编辑:丁心睿

On the Significance of Lowering the Age of Criminal Responsibility

Keywords: minors, age of criminal responsibility, lowered age of criminal responsibility

Abstract: In recent years, juvenile crime has shown a trend of younger age and violence. This trend has aroused the debate among scholars on whether the age of criminal responsibility should be lowered. This article expounds the necessity and significance of lowering the age of criminal responsibility from the perspective of victims, protection of minors and overseas judicial reference.

Overview of juvenile crime

In 2014, an 8-year-old boy was beaten to death by 11 elementary school students in Yu County, Hebei[15]. On February 25, 2020, a 13-year-old boy in Meishan City, Sichuan Province killed his sleeping mother for trivial matters[16]. On May 27th, four boys in Lantian County, Shaanxi Province sexually assaulted a 13-year-old girl in the men’s toilet[17]…. This type of vicious crime of a young underage is not uncommon. Because the parties did not reach the age of criminal responsibility, the relevant departments did not open the case, which caused widespread discussion in society.

In China’s current “Criminal Law”, the age of criminal responsibility is divided into three categories: 16 years of age or older is the age of full responsibility, that is, full criminal responsibility should be borne; people who have reached 14 years of age and under 16 are the age of limited criminal responsibility. Eight categories of crimes[18] bear criminal responsibility; under the age of fourteen is the age of absolutely no criminal responsibility, that is, no criminal responsibility[19]. The research team of the Chinese Society for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency conducted a questionnaire survey on juvenile delinquency, and the survey pointed out that “the trend of the younger age of juvenile delinquency is particularly prominent in the field of malicious crimes and violent crimes, such as intentional homicide and robbery. Take the crime of intentional homicide as an example. The percentage of 14-year-old juveniles is close to 50%”[20].

Out of the protection of minors, the “Criminal Procedure Law” clearly stipulates the policy of “education, probation, and rescue” for criminal minors, but at this stage juvenile delinquency shows a trend of younger age and violence. Most of the exposed cases of vicious homicide of young minors are due to the fact that the criminal minor has not reached the age of criminal responsibility. The relevant departments have not filed the case, and the crime, responsibility and punishment are not matched, which has caused an uproar in the public. Although the number of such extreme cases is small, each one challenges the public’s trust in judicial authority and impartiality.

Commentator Si Hanhan said: “A gentle education without punishment can hardly serve as a warning or deterrent[21].” In the face of bitter facts, lowering the age of criminal responsibility on the one hand can calm the emotions of the victim and his family, on the other hand, it is also of great significance for child protection.

Soothing effect on victims:

Article 17 Paragraph 4 of the Criminal Law specifically stipulates: “Those who are not subject to criminal punishment because they are under the age of sixteen” should generally “order their parents or guardians to discipline them”; “When necessary, the government can also take care of them.” At this stage, the detention system has existed in name only in practice. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate’s non-inspection office stated: “The government’s detention and rehabilitation measures have also existed in name after the abolition of the reeducation through labor system, because the enforcement sites for detention and rehabilitation no longer exist. The current situation is that most provinces and cities The detention and rehabilitation measures are basically no longer applicable. The few provinces and cities that still apply detention and rehabilitation measures have also encountered serious doubts about the’legitimacy’ in the application procedures and execution venues[22].” Therefore, in judicial practice, it is difficult to implement the detention policy. implement. In addition, the “work-study system” proposed in the “Prevention of Juvenile Crimes Law” means that parents, guardians and schools can choose to send minors with serious bad behaviors to work-study schools. The law itself is not mandatory, but optional. Not to mention that sending criminal minors to work-study schools requires the consent of the guardian[23], as far as the work-study school itself is concerned; work-study schools do not fall within the scope of administrative sanctions or penalties, except in accordance with the requirements of the Compulsory Education Law, in terms of curriculum settings, and ordinary schools In addition, work-study schools strengthen the content of legal education[24]. From this point of view, there is no suitable means of discipline and punishment for criminal minors.

On October 20, 2019, a 13-year-old boy from Dalian, Cai Moumou, killed a 10-year-old girl from the same community, Xiaoqi, and threw her body into the bushes[25]. The boy was sentenced to apologize in print media and compensated 1.28 million. In the context of “family planning”, the importance of children to a family is self-evident. In this scenario, compared with families that have suffered annihilation, the penalties for criminal juveniles to be fostered or sent to work-study schools are insufficient, and they cannot comfort the victims and their families well. Under the influence of extreme emotions such as resentment and despair, their family members may develop revenge and passionate murder. Lower the age of criminal responsibility, use penalties to punish crimes, comfort and compensate victims. Prevent victims and their relatives from taking private retaliation against criminals, soothe the hearts of victims and their families in a timely manner, and respond to the public’s doubts about the law, which is more conducive to social stability.

Protection of minors

The objects of the minors’ contacts are specific, and most of the victims are still minors. Such as school bullying incidents that have received social attention. The perpetrator relied on his youth and did not need to bear criminal responsibility, and carried out his own “pranks” unscrupulously. When the victim seeks help from the school or the police station, the public security department’s handling of the person concerned will be restricted, and the punishment effect will not be obvious. As for the school, it is due to various reasons, such as the bitter pleadings of the perpetrator’s family members, peace of mind, and not affecting the reputation of the school. Often tolerant methods are used to verbally criticize the perpetrator or have him write a review as punishment. Such tender penal measures have reduced the cost of crime and contributed to the arrogance of the perpetrator to a certain extent. Blindly protecting the perpetrator will only increase the possibility of the victim being harmed again for no reason. This is undoubtedly a protection for minors. Adverse. Conversely, lowering the age of criminal responsibility will help schools and families to pay more attention to juvenile crimes, and can prevent and intervene in juvenile crimes as soon as possible.

Foreign judicial reference

With the development of the economy and the comprehensive status of juvenile delinquency, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child recommends 12 years of age as the minimum age of criminal responsibility. The minimum age of criminal responsibility in the United Kingdom is 10 years old, and the age of criminal responsibility set by various states in the United States is 7 years old, and the maximum is not more than 13 years old[26]. The current age of criminal responsibility in the mainland is significantly higher than other major countries and regions. In addition, the essence of the “malicious supplementary age system[27]” called for by scholars is the relative age of criminal responsibility, which is limited to the age of relative criminal responsibility. The flexibility of “maliciously supplementing the age of criminal responsibility” is also limited, and it will not exceed the rigid requirement of the relative age of criminal responsibility[28]. Therefore, only when the minimum age of criminal responsibility is lowered, can we effectively apply “maliciously supplementing the age of criminal responsibility” to deal with the problem of the younger age of juvenile delinquency.

Conclusion

Professor Luo Xiang once said: “Benevolence is opposite to justice. Without justice, benevolence no longer exists.” Whether it is the differentiation of the age of criminal responsibility, the establishment of a juvenile criminal record storage system, or the establishment of juvenile criminal cases It all reflects the tenderness and kindness of the law to minors. But this kind of “kindness” is not the reason for us to ignore the tearful eyes of the victim. The fruit of love that lacks fair soil will eventually turn into a poisonous knife, endangering society and causing irreparable consequences.

Writer: Yuzhen Fu

Translator: Yilin Wang

Editor: Xinrui Ding

微信图片_20201002171331

“Global Snapshots on Child Law” is initiated by Zhicheng Public Interest Law. We hope to unite global volunteers who are passionate about the cause of public interests and build the most updated, timely and genuine information sharing platform for child protection worldly.

筹备与内容审核:

石纯毓,戴允中,陈欣怡

技术支持:

陈强,陈惠昀,袁子淇,任书仪,张钧宁,庞静,袁倩华,朱宇飞,成颖杰,罗湘玥,刘芸含,冯馨田,王小茉,薛志奇,雅雪



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[DB/OL]http://www.infzm.com/wap/#/content/102336,2020-08-20

[2] 红星新闻:《四川眉山一名13岁少年竟因琐事杀母 警方:案件进一步侦办中》

[DB/OL]https://www.sohu.com/a/375773740_116237,2020-08-20

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[DB/OL]https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MTI0MDU3NDYwMQ==&mid=2656899163&idx=1&sn=3510d6f42450e583484c2cd959c6e268&chksm=7a67edbd4d1064abfb1ee7da511e71433702e27a56743dcfb3ab3883144b754c9e52c35fff69&mpshare=1&scene=1&srcid=0609jRvmv3aQEjHjvmi0dfMq&sharer_sharetime=1591663497348&sharer_shareid=9c2c3827709c60a9d805966fa2e52a4b#rd,2020-08-20

[4] 八大类犯罪包括故意杀人、故意伤害致人重伤或死亡、强奸、抢劫、贩卖毒品、放火、爆炸、投毒罪

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[10] 澎湃新闻网:《湖南3名少年打死女教师 未满14岁均不担刑责》

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[11] 澎湃新闻:《大连13岁男孩杀害10岁女童案宣判:法院判赔128万》

[DB/OL]https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1674624724473871371&wfr=spider&for=pc,2020-08-20

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[DB/OL]http://www.infzm.com/wap/#/content/102336,2020-08-20

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[DB/OL]https://www.sohu.com/a/375773740_116237,2020-08-20

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[DB/OL]https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MTI0MDU3NDYwMQ==&mid=2656899163&idx=1&sn=3510d6f42450e583484c2cd959c6e268&chksm=7a67edbd4d1064abfb1ee7da511e71433702e27a56743dcfb3ab3883144b754c9e52c35fff69&mpshare=1&scene=1&srcid=0609jRvmv3aQEjHjvmi0dfMq&sharer_sharetime=1591663497348&sharer_shareid=9c2c3827709c60a9d805966fa2e52a4b#rd,2020-08-20

[18] Eight categories of crimes include intentional homicide, intentional injury resulting in serious injury or death, rape, robbery, drug trafficking, arson, explosion, and poisoning

[19] [M]Feng Jun and Xiao Zhonghua, editor-in-chief: “General Theory of Criminal Law”, Renmin University of China Press (Third Edition), page 209

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[DB/OL]http://pinglun.eastday.com/p/20180703/u1ai11586517.html,2020-08-20

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[23] Article 35 of the Law on the Protection of Juveniles: For minors who have serious bad behaviors as prescribed in this law, their parents or other guardians and the school shall cooperate with each other, take measures to strictly discipline them, or send them to work-study schools for correction. And receive education. For minors to be sent to work-study schools for correction and education, their parents or other guardians, or their original school, should submit an application and be approved by the education administrative department.

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[DB/OL]http://m.cnr.cn/news/20151021/t20151021_520216190.html,2020-08-20

[25] The Paper: “Dalian 13-year-old boy murdered 10-year-old girl case sentencing: court awards 1.28 million compensation”

[DB/OL]https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1674624724473871371&wfr=spider&for=pc,2020-08-20

[26] [J]”Youth and Society”: The need to lower the age of criminal responsibility, mid-February 2020

[27] For minors who are at a certain age and below the minimum age of criminal responsibility, it is presumed in principle that they are not capable of criminal responsibility, but the prosecution can fully prove the criminal subject’s “maliciousness”, which is deemed to have reached the age of criminal responsibility.

[28] [J]”Study on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency”: The nature and potential for reference of “maliciously supplementing the age of criminal responsibility” in the Commonwealth and American law systems-Response to the current controversy on lowering the age of criminal responsibility, Issue 1, 2020

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