关键词：星级预警分类 家暴 未成年人
Innovative Measures to Care For Minors Involved in Domestic Violence according to the Classification of Star-Rating Warning
Key words: Classification of star-rating warning, Domestic violence, Minors
Abstract: This essay mainly explains the positive effect of the Opinions on Early Warning and Intervention on the Mental Health of Minors Involved in Domestic Violence jointly put forward by the Women’s Federation and Education Bureau of Jianggan District in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province on preventing the occurrence of domestic violence cases involving minors.
1. Analysis of the causes of frequent domestic violence
In recent years, domestic violence cases have become increasingly fierce, and many minors are suffering from the persecution of domestic violence. So-called family violence is not only a household matter , but a societal issue which refers to behaviors between family members by beating, binding, shuttering or adopting other actions to family member’s physical, psychological and sexual damage and destruction. Because of their physical or mental vulnerability, children are constantly in a state of oppression.Analysis of the causes of frequent domestic violence
There are several explanations for the existence of domestic violence: first, it could be related to the abuser’s family of origin. In this case, most abusers lack the ability to deal with family conflicts due to the harm done to them when they were young. Hence, they often attempt to handle conflicts by means of arguments or violence. Another reason could be the pathological personality possessed by some people. It is possible that the abuser has a personality disorder or some special mental illnesses, which lead to he or she having a tendency towards using some forms of coercive violence to express emotions.
2.The positive role of classification of star-rating warning
The Opinions on Early Warning and Intervention for The Mental Health of Minors Involved in Domestic Violence (hereinafter referred to as the Opinions), jointly introduced by the Women’s Federation and the District Education Bureau of Jianggan District, Hangzhou city, Zhejiang Province, puts forward the star-rating warning system. The so-called star-rating warning classification, Women’s Federation of Jianggan District classifies the alerts involved with domestic violence against minors into four categories with different star-ratings according to the identity of the person reporting the incident and the cause of the incident: children making police reports because of parents’ disputes, children calling the police because of parenting, parents’ calling for police because of parenting and grandparents or neighbors’ calling for police because of parenting. Meanwhile, the extent to which the rights and interests of children in the families who call the police have been violated and their physical and mental health conditions will be preliminary assessed according to the severity of the alarm. The consequence of the assessment can be classified as three-stars concern (senior age and out of school with rebellious personality, psychological health, physical conflict with parents), two-stars concern (junior age with tense relationship with parents) and one-star concern (improper parenting). After making this kind of classification, the evaluation results will be simultaneously given by the Women’s Federation of Jianggan District to the Education Bureau and other relevant departments as well as the street and women’s Federation of the community, so warnings can be made timely. In addition, in terms of protection measures, the three-star concern mainly focuses on the education and guidance of parents by the women’s Federation, and schools focusing on strengthening psychological counseling of minors. For two-star concern, family counselors and “Qiantang A Jie” rights protection volunteers provide care for minors, focusing on resolving family conflicts. Minors involved in one-star concern shall be cared for by the community, grid members and corridor managers. And improper parental education methods shall be corrected timely in daily visits.
3.How to better protect the healthy growth of minors
Recently, a deputy to the National People’s Congress suggested that parents should take up post as parents with certificate of qualification. Although this proposal sounds unrealistic, it actually makes sense to some extent, because a lot of children suffer from domestic violence because their parents lack parenting experience and relative capacity. There should be thoughts of putting equal weight on both “giving birth” and “raising the child”. Maybe such recommendation will help with the exploration of proper parenting education for parents, especially to establish a one-to-one teaching plan to change the view of the parents who have problematic tendency . In addition to parents, the school and the society should give minors more care and love, only when we are united as one, can we build a relatively harmonious future for children!
World Hepatitis Day: Accelerating the Elimination of Mother-to-child Hepatitis B Transmission
The proportion of children under five years of age chronically infected with hepatitis B (HBV) dropped to just under 1% in 2019 down from around 5% in the pre-vaccine era (the period between the 1980s and the early 2000s), according to new estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO).
Key words: World Health Organization, Accelerating the elimination of mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission, Health
This marks the achievement of one of the milestone targets to eliminate viral hepatitis in the Sustainable Development Goals ─ to reach under 1% prevalence of HBV infections in children under five years of age by 2020.
“No infant should grow up only to die of hepatitis B because they were not vaccinated ─ today’s milestone means that we have dramatically reduced the number of cases of liver damage and liver cancer in future generations,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “Preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B is the most important strategy for controlling the disease and saving lives. Even in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, we must ensure that mothers and newborns have access to life-saving services including hepatitis B vaccinations.”
On World Hepatitis Day 2020, WHO is calling for united and stepped-up action to build on this achievement through intensified efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV through testing pregnant women and provision of antiviral prophylaxis to those who need it and maintaining and expanding access to hepatitis B immunization and birth dose vaccine.
Globally, more than 250 million people are living with chronic HBV infection. Infants are especially vulnerable: about 90% of children infected with HBV in their first year of life become chronic HBV carriers. HBV attacks the liver and claims the lives of nearly 900 000 people each year.
Preventing hepatitis B
Infants can be protected from HBV through a safe and effective vaccine that provides over 95% protection against infection. WHO recommends that all infants receive a first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth – preferably within 24 hours – followed by at least 2 additional doses.
The scale-up of hepatitis B vaccine worldwide over the last two decades, which has been in large part due to the support provided by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has been a great public health success story and contributed to the decrease in HBV infections among children. In 2019, coverage of 3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine during childhood reached 85% worldwide, up from around 30% in 2000. However, access to the first critical dose within 24 hours of birth remains uneven. Global coverage of this birth dose is 43%, but this drops to 34% in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region and only 6% in the WHO African Region.
“Expanding access to a timely birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine is the cornerstone of efforts to prevent mother-to-children transmission of HBV. For countries especially in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, where the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine has not yet been introduced, it is a priority to assure that protection as early as possible,” said Dr Meg Doherty, Director of Global HIV, Hepatitis and STI Programmes.
An additional way to protect children is to provide pregnant women with antiviral treatment to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HBV. WHO already recommends routine testing of all pregnant women for HBV, as well as HIV and syphilis as early as possible in their pregnancy. In view of new evidence on the safety and efficacy of antiviral prophylaxis in pregnant women and their children, WHO is issuing today 2 new recommendations:
1.Pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B infection and have a high level of HBV in the blood (known as HBV viral load) should receive preventive antiviral therapy with tenofovir from the 28th week of pregnancy until birth. The antiviral drug, tenofovir is available at low cost in many countries of the world for less than US$3 per month.
2.In settings where HBV viral load testing is not available, WHO recommends the use of an alternative low cost test (HBeAg) to determine whether a woman is eligible for preventive antiviral therapy.
In countries that have already achieved high coverage of hepatitis B immunization, including timely birth dose, routine testing for HBV infection among pregnant women and antiviral prophylaxis for those in need is an additional opportunity to prevent onward transmission from mother to child.
Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HBV is also an important stepping stone for reaching the targets of WHO’s global hepatitis strategy, which aims to reduce new hepatitis infections by 90% and deaths by 65%, compared to 2015 levels.
“Stopping vertical transmission of HBV is a key pillar of the global ‘triple elimination’ initiative, which seeks to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of three infections that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries: HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B virus,” added Dr Doherty.
The COVID-19 pandemic jeopardizes future progress
COVID-19 threatens to hamper progress in eliminating HBV. According to a new modelling study conducted by Imperial College London in collaboration with WHO, disruptions to the hepatitis B vaccination programme due to the pandemic could have a serious impact on efforts to reach the targets of the global strategy.
Under a worst-case scenario, with high levels of disruptions of both the birth dose and childhood HBV immunization (by 60% and 20% for one year respectively), as well as a delay and slow recovery in the expansion of the vaccination programme towards the planned 2030 WHO-targets in the post COVID-19 period, there would be a projected 5.3 million additional chronic HBV infections among children born between 2020 and 2030 and 1 million additional HBV-related deaths among those children later on. Thus, missed opportunities now to prevent new HBV infections will have a long-lasting and life-impacting effect.
We have seen a tremendous public health achievement in promoting hepatitis B vaccination globally in the past twenty years, with the support of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Hepatitis B infection rates among children significantly reduced as well. The infection rate in 2019 has shown the achievement of a milestone set in the Sustainable Development Goals regarding the elimination of viral hepatitis. Nonetheless, there is still much work to be done to prevent hepatitis B transmission. As the most vulnerable group to be chronically infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis vaccination for children has always been a hot issue. It should be further emphasized that preventing mother-to-child transmission is the most important strategy for controlling illness and saving lives.
Writer: Yani Zheng
Translator: Yipeng Duan
Editor: Jiayi Zhao
Ministry of Finance: Subsidize 29.35 Billion Yuan for Improving Weak Links in Compulsory Education
Key words: Compulsory education in rural areas, Education IT, “Internet + Education”
According to Economic Daily’s report on July 27, recently, the Ministry of Finance arranged subsidies of 29.35 billion yuan on improving weakness and enhancing the capacity of compulsory education in 2020, in order to continue to support local governments to eliminate most of the “large class size” in cities and towns and make up for the most shortcomings of small-scale rural schools and boarding schools in villages and towns, so as to achieve the full coverage of online teaching environment in rural compulsory education schools.
The opinions on improving the weak links of compulsory education and improving the ability of compulsory education issued in July 2019, clearly pointed out that by the end of 2020 the overcrowding class with more than 66 students will be completely eliminated, and the existing large-scale class containing over 56 students will be mostly eliminated, and the proportion of large-scale class will be controlled within 5% across the country. In addition, the rural boarding schools and small-scale rural schools will be arranged scientifically and reasonably to overcome their shortcomings, and to satisfy the basic school-running standard of the province. Besides, the rural compulsory education schools will be fully covered with internet teaching environment and the application of IT in education in the rural areas will be continuously improved.
It is reported that the allocation of funds will give overall consideration to the relocated schools in the relocation region of the poor in the central and western areas, the improvement of the heating conditions in high elevation and severely cold area and the situation of the testing of “Internet + Education” program. Furthermore, the government will pay more attention to provinces with counties listed in the county government’s poverty alleviation list. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance also requires local governments to put in place overall planning at the provincial level, increase investment intensity, optimize the expenditure structure, and focus on deep poverty-stricken areas like “three districts, three prefectures”, especially the counties listed for poverty alleviation.
In the big year of getting rid of poverty, rural areas are crucial. In order to resolutely win the battle against poverty in rural areas, education is the foundation and the talents are the key. Since compulsory education is the foundation of the whole national education system, the Ministry of finance allocates 29.35 billion yuan to the improvement of the weakness of compulsory education, provides talent guarantee and intellectual support, which is related to the development of rural human capital competitiveness. With the popularization and advance of the internet, it is expected to achieve the full coverage of internet teaching in rural compulsory education schools, allowing students to experience remote teaching and keep up with the society in time through the internet. At the same time, this activity will effectively and scientifically set up boarding schools and small-scale rural schools, to improve the school conditions and security level, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, different regions and schools, and promote balanced development of compulsory education.
“Mandatory Reporting App”
Protecting Minors against Harms
Key words: Cases of abuse of minors, Mandatory Reporting System
On July 23, the “Mandatory Reporting APP” developed by the Jiulongpo District Procuratorate and the Jiulongpo District Branch of the Municipal Public Security Bureau of Chongqing was officially launched. It is the first “Mandatory Reporting APP” in the country since the issuance of the Opinions on the Establishment of a Mandatory Reporting System for Cases against Minors. It targets nine situations such as rape, indecency, abuse, and harm to minors. It exerts the three functions of reporting, handling and supervision. It is conducive to early detection, early intervention and early punishment of crimes against minors, and to timely block out the continuous harm to minors.
All along, the health and growth of minors have been a wide concern of our country and society. In the era of underdeveloped network information, there are many cases of infringement of minors, but often because of various reasons to block the rights of the end. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, child protection measures have improved. The “Mandatory Reporting APP” developed by Chongqing, as the first intelligent platform that specializes in mandatory reporting of clues on cases of infringement of minors, tackled at the largest degree with the problem of difficult detection of cases involving minors. The advantage of this APP is not only its convenient reporting, quick acceptance of cases, timely investigation and handling, and synchronization of supervision, but also the entrustment of the obligation of mandatory report to individuals, industry organizations and related staff in close contact with minors. As thus, the system not only succeeds in having a large number of audiences but is also able to gather the power of the crowd to create the effect of 1+1>2. Protecting minors, we are always on the way!
2020年7月28日，美国堪萨斯城地方新闻采访了一位在孩童时期遭受性侵的女生。这位名叫艾琳娜（Elena Nanneman）的22岁女生用自己的亲身经历，为保护受性侵影响的儿童提供了希望。7至8岁的童年时期，艾琳娜曾在爷爷的教堂里被一位长者长期性侵，且这位长者是他们家非常信任的一位朋友。在一次“公开的骚扰”中，性侵犯者的恶行才浮出水面。艾琳娜的父母知道此事后，将她带到了一个叫Sunflower House的专注于受暴力和性侵的儿童保护和支持机构。机构的工作人员是有专业知识的社会工作者，他们为那些受到创伤的儿童提供了一个非常安全且令人安心的环境，使得他们不像在警察局那样害怕地讲出这一切。Sunflower House还给孩子们设计了一个玩具屋，他们可以选择自己喜欢的玩具。艾琳娜说，在Sunflower House里经历的一切让她至今记忆犹新，工作人员让孩童时期的她明白，他们相信她说的话，会为她提供帮助。同时，她也渐渐明白这一切不是她的错，从创伤中渐渐恢复过来，勇敢地面对这一切。如今，22岁的艾琳娜已成为Sunflower House的发言人之一，她用自己的故事鼓励那些和她一样的受害者。
Professional Social Agencies Provide Hope for Child Victims of Sexual Abuse
Key words: Child sexual abuse, Methods of protecting sexually abused child, Child protection agency
On July 28, 2020, Kansas City Local News interviewed a girl who was sexually abused as a child. The 22-year-old girl named Elena Nanneman used her own experience to offer hope for sexual abused survivors. During her childhood from 7 to 8 years old, Elena was sexually abused by an elder in her grandfather’s church for a long time, and this elder was a very trusted and loved friend of their family. In a “public harassment”, the abuse of the sexual offender came forward. After Elena’s parents learned of this, they took her to a child protection and support agency called Sunflower House that specialized in cases of physical and sexual abuse. The staff of the agency were trained and licensed social workers with expertise. They provided a very safe and reassuring environment for children who had been traumatized, so that they were not afraid to tell what happened to them as in the police station. Sunflower House also designed a dollhouse for children, where they could choose their favorite toys. Elena said that everything she experienced in Sunflower House was still fresh in her memory. The staff let her as a child understand that they believed what she said and were there to help her. At the same time, she also understood that all this was not her fault, which was one of the most important goals of Sunflower House. She gradually recovered from the trauma, and bravely faced all this. Today, 22-year-old Elena has become one of the spokespersons of Sunflower House. She uses her story to encourage victims like her.
Writer: Jinying GuoUsually, children need timely and professional psychological intervention and treatment after being sexually abused. Professional agencies like Sunflower House can do that and let the victims tell the details of what happened to them and vent their emotions. This is precisely the crucial method for children to heal their wounds. Social institutions similar to Sunflower House should be more popular and professional in society. At the same time, the cooperation between such institutions and the police should also be considered, as well as to what extent the children’s experiences in the institution can be used as criminal evidence against the offender. In addition, it is important to make the children realize that this is not their fault. Parents should provide their children psychological comfort as soon as possible, and seek help from professional agencies to reduce secondary injuries. Of course, to prevent such things from happening, we must give children proper sex education and safety education, such as not letting strangers touch their private parts of their bodies, and when someone behave strangely to their bodies, they are supposed to tell the parents immediately.
Translator: Jinying Guo
Editor: Jiahe Cao
Heading back to School in the Pandemic
——As School Doors Start to Reopen in Some Countries, What Does It Look Like for Students?
Key words: UNICEF, COVID-19 epidemic, School health，School return
An entire generation has seen its education interrupted. At the height of nation-wide lockdowns in April, approximately 91 per cent of the world’s students in more than 194 countries were out of school. This has caused immeasurable disruption to the lives, learning and wellbeing of children around the world.
UNICEF is working together with governments and schools to keep children, particularly the most marginalized, learning and to not just reopen schools, but reopen better schools.
As school doors start to reopen in some countries, measures like handwashing stations, physical distancing, mask wearing and temperature checks are being integrated into school life. Here’s a glimpse of what a return to school looks like for students in the following countries.
In China,Children get their temperature checked and use hand sanitizer before entering their kindergarten, which reopened on 2 June in Chongqing, China. To keep children healthy and safe, staff and teachers have implemented a series of measures, including monitoring for COVID-19 symptoms, encouraging good hygiene practices and disinfecting classrooms and dormitories.
Children in China are gradually returning to school following the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on disease control and prevention measures, timetables vary across provinces and school grades.
Children attend classes at the primary school of San-Pedro, in the South West of Côte d’Ivoire. Due to COVID-19, schools were closed for several weeks. On 18 May, classes resumed with precautionary measures: children wearing masks, washing their hands regularly and maintaining physical distance.UNICEF supported a Safe School Return campaign to support students, teachers and parents with practical tips that have been distributed to schools across the country.
The Ministry of Education has recently announced a school break between the end of June and September. UNICEF is supporting the ministry with the development of practical guidance and counseling tools to support local authorities, families and students.
A student gets his hands disinfected at a high school in Minia governorate in Egypt.
UNICEF is supporting the Ministry of Education with the development of guidelines for the safe reopening of schools. We have also supported disinfection efforts in 360 schools in the Minia and Fayoum governorates to help protect 338,259 children. UNICEF will help disinfect another 567 schools ahead of the Grade 12 final exams.
Teachers and students take preventative measures on the first day of school in Lao Cai, Viet Nam on 11 May. These measures are being called ‘new habits’ to make schools safer for all during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Following a prolonged break since the Lunar New Year festival in late January, over 22 million Vietnamese students began to return to school. For schools to reopen, they had to meet a list of safety standards set by the Ministry of Education and Training, to prevent the spread of infections. These included environmental and food hygiene, medical and sanitation tools (such as thermometers and soap), temperature checks, mask wearing and appropriate distancing in the classroom.
With support from UNICEF, all 43,966 schools nationwide have implemented school safety protocols to help students and teachers return to school.
Under the epidemic situation, students need to return to school. These countries also provide a safe and good learning environment for students in this special situation. UNICEF has also cooperated with governments and schools of various countries to build hand washing stations and temperature measurement channels so that children can continue to study and allow schools to reopen. In the context of fighting the epidemic, UNICEF and treatment have played a key role in promoting children’s health in schools.
Writer: Chuiqing Kong
Translator: Chuiqing Kong
“Global Snapshots on Child Law”项目由致诚公益律师团队发起，我们希望联合全球热爱公益事业、关注儿童保护的志愿者打造全球儿童保护最新、最及时、最真实的动态分享平台。
“Global Snapshots on Child Law” is initiated by Zhicheng Public Interest Law. We hope to unite global volunteers who are passionate about the cause of public interests and build the most updated, timely and genuine information sharing platform for child protection worldly.